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Breed Group Group 12: Companion and Toy Breeds
Sub-group 12-B: Asian Breeds
Origin Country China
Weight Males: 14-18 pounds. Females: 14-18 pounds.
Height Males: 10-14 inches. Females: 10-14 inches.
Other Name(s) Carlin, Doguillo, Mops
Breed Type Pure
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Pug

Breed Group Group 12: Companion and Toy Breeds
Sub-group 12-B: Asian Breeds
Origin Country China
Weight Males: 14-18 pounds. Females: 14-18 pounds.
Height Males: 10-14 inches. Females: 10-14 inches.
Other Name(s) Carlin, Doguillo, Mops
Breed Type Pure
click here for FULL BREED STANDARD

Breed Spotlight

Origins

Like his cousins, the Pekingese and the Shih Tzu, the Pug originated in China around 400 BCE. In China, he served as a companion to Chinese royalty only, since it was illegal for anyone other than those in the court of the Emperor to own such dogs. Several hypotheses surround the development of these jovial little dogs, as well as their exact routes out of the East and into the West. However, the most probable scenario is that the dogs were brought to Holland by the Dutch or Portuguese merchants who traded with China.

In Holland, Prince William of the House of Orange is credited with helping the Pug’s popularity climb. It is said that the Prince’s life was spared because Pompey, one of his beloved Pugs, barked out in the night to alert the sleeping Prince of oncoming Spanish assassins in 1572. From that point on, the Pug became the official dog of the House of Orange.

Following in his grandfather’s footsteps, Prince William III and his wife, Queen Anne, also brought Pugs along when they ascended to the throne of England. There, the plucky little Pugs accompanied their reign as the preferred breed of royalty. From there, the Pug was exported from England to America, becoming an officially recognized breed in 1885. Today, the Pug is one of the most easily recognizable breeds in the world. With his endearing nature and comical (sometimes guilt-inducing) appearance, he has won the hearts of not only royalty, but all kinds of people the world over.

Breed Characteristics

Head: Rather brachycephalic skull-type, moderate in size, and in proportion to the rest of the body. The head appears rounded when viewed from the front or side. The cheeks and temporalis area are smoothly muscled and filled, never appearing protrusive or chiseled. The forehead appears rather tall, as opposed to elongated and parallel to the horizon. However, the head should never appear apple-headed or domed. A perceptible muzzle is preferred over a completely flat profile. The head may exhibit some minimal wrinkling, but never in excess or with exaggeration. A clean, minimal wrinkled head is preferred.
Eyes: The eyes are medium to large in size, dark in color, and globular, round, or lemon-shaped. The eyes are never bulging or almond in shape. There should be sufficient bone in the surrounding orbital sockets to protect the eyes and prevent them from appearing to protrude or bulge. Wall-eyes or exposed whites are incorrect. Any signs of entropion or ectropion are incorrect for this breed.
Ears: Small to medium in size, set high on the edge of the skull, and may be drop or rose. There is no preference between the two ear types. The ears are never long, overly large, or erect. Any signs of entropion or ectropion are incorrect for this breed.
Muzzle: The muzzle is short, broad, full, and rather deep. It should protrude sufficiently from the stop to a distance that it is easily perceptible in profile and from the front. The upper and lower jaws are broad and have good bone substance, appearing strong and well-developed, never appearing snipy or weak. The lower jaw is somewhat longer than the upper jaw and slightly turned up, giving the pug a slight pouting appearance when viewed from the front, and giving the muzzle a rounded profile; however, the lower jaw should never protrude beyond the break of the lips. The teeth and tongue must be completely concealed when the mouth is closed.
Nose: The nose sits slightly further back than the end of the muzzle, but should never appear completely pushed in. The nose is well-pigmented and black. The nostrils are well-opened. Pinched nostrils, narrow nostrils, and heavy nose wrinkle extending beyond the nose leather are all unacceptable and should be penalized.
Neck: Thick, of a moderate length to allow for proud head carriage and strongly muscled with a slight arch. The neck is relatively clean-cut, but slightly loose skin is permissible near the throat. Excess skin, throatiness, or dewlap is incorrect for the breed.
Chest: Deep and broad, but never wider than deep. The brisket extends to the point of the elbows. The forechest is well-developed, but not protrusive.
Body: The body is well put together, compact, cobby, solid, and of good substance. The body is never racy or refined. Width at forequarters is approximately equal to the width at the hindquarters.
Feet: Oval to round and compact, with well-arched toes and tough pads.
Tail: Set high on the croup. It is thick at the base and tapering toward the tip. It may be short to medium in length and straight, gently curved, or it may be curled over the back in a loose or tight single or double curl. Preference is given to a straight tail. The tail is carried in accordance with the dog’s mood and energy level, but never tucked.
Movement: The Pug’s movement should be steady, strong, and purposeful. A slight rolling action is forgivable, so long as it doesn’t appear constrained, cumbersome, or inefficient. The characteristics of healthy structure are evident: when moving away, the forelegs and rear pasterns should remain parallel to one another. When viewing movement from the front, the forelegs should remain parallel, with elbows and paws moving neither in nor out. From the rear, the back pads should be visible when the rear legs are extended. As speed increases, the forelimbs and hindlimbs will converge to the centerline of gravity. From the side, the topline should remain firm and level. Good reach of movement in the front allows the forepaw to extend out in a line with the nose. The width between the forefeet when extended should be approximately equal to the width between the hindfeet when extended, indicating balance, good reach, and good drive. Dogs that exhibit any sign of breathing or locomotive difficulty shall be disqualified from the show ring.
Temperament: The Pug is a charming and even-tempered breed. He is known for his outgoing, sociable, and playful nature. He is intelligent and capable of learning many commands and tricks. He is an especially suitable lap dog, possessing a strong devotion toward his family. Any unprovoked aggressive or fearful behavior toward people is incorrect for this breed.
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Breed Standard

BREED GROUP 12: Companion and Toy Breeds

Proportions: Square in proportion to the length of the body, measured from the point of the forechest to the point of the rump, being equal to the height at the withers. The ideal body height to length ratio is between 1:1 and 10:9. The body is well put together, with solid substance and medium bone. The Latin phrase, multum in parvo, meaning “a lot in a little,” is often used to describe the Pug, and aptly so.

Head

General Appearance: Rather brachycephalic skull-type, moderate in size, and in proportion to the rest of the body. The head appears rounded when viewed from the front or side. The cheeks and temporalis area are smoothly muscled and filled, never appearing protrusive or chiseled. The forehead appears rather tall, as opposed to elongated and parallel to the horizon. However, the head should never appear apple-headed or domed. A perceptible muzzle is preferred over a completely flat profile. The head may exhibit some minimal wrinkling, but never in excess or with exaggeration. A clean, minimal wrinkled head is preferred.
Expression: Curious, alert, lively, intelligent, and charming.
Stop: The stop is definite, preferably forming a 90-degree angle between the topskull and muzzle. A wrinkle or roll over the stop is not to be penalized.
Skull: The ideal muzzle-to-skull ratio is 8:1, with the topskull being longer than the muzzle.
The ideal muzzle-to-skull axis is convergent.
Muzzle: The muzzle is short, broad, full, and rather deep. It should protrude sufficiently from the stop to a distance that it is easily perceptible in profile and from the front. The upper and lower jaws are broad and have good bone substance, appearing strong and well-developed, never appearing snipy or weak. The lower jaw is somewhat longer than the upper jaw and slightly turned up, giving the pug a slight pouting appearance when viewed from the front, and giving the muzzle a rounded profile; however, the lower jaw should never protrude beyond the break of the lips. The teeth and tongue must be completely concealed when the mouth is closed.
Lips or Flews: Lips are somewhat clean, broad, thick, yet fit snuggly over the teeth and jaws. The teeth, tongue, and lower jaw are completely concealed by the lips. Lips meet in an inverted “V” in the front.
Nose: The nose sits slightly further back than the end of the muzzle, but should never appear completely pushed in. The nose is well-pigmented and black. The nostrils are well-opened. Pinched nostrils, narrow nostrils, and heavy nose wrinkle extending beyond the nose leather are all unacceptable and should be penalized.
Cheeks: The cheeks are smoothly muscled but should not appear chiseled or coarse. Some wrinkling around the cheek, extending from the outer corner of the eye to the corner of the mouth, may be present.
Dentition and Bite: Forty-two strong, clean, white teeth. Bite may be level, reverse-scissor, or slightly undershot. Less than 1/8 of an inch of space between upper and lower incisors is permissible. Contact preferred between the top and bottom incisors.
Eyes: The eyes are medium to large in size, dark in color, and globular, round, or lemon-shaped. The eyes are never bulging or almond in shape. There should be sufficient bone in the surrounding orbital sockets to protect the eyes and prevent them from appearing to protrude or bulge. Wall-eyes or exposed whites are incorrect. Any signs of entropion or ectropion are incorrect for this breed.
Ears: Small to medium in size, set high on the edge of the skull, and may be drop or rose. There is no preference between the two ear types. The ears are never long, overly large, or erect. Any signs of entropion or ectropion are incorrect for this breed.

Body and Tail

General Description: The body is well put together, compact, cobby, solid, and of good substance. The body is never racy or refined. Width at forequarters is approximately equal to the width at the hindquarters.
Neck: Thick, of a moderate length to allow for proud head carriage and strongly muscled with a slight arch. The neck is relatively clean-cut, but slightly loose skin is permissible near the throat. Excess skin, throatiness, or dewlap is incorrect for the breed.
Chest: Deep and broad, but never wider than deep. The brisket extends to the point of the elbows. The forechest is well-developed, but not protrusive.
Topline: Level from withers to croup. The back is broad, powerfully muscled, and straight, yet supple. The loin is taut, flat and level, or slightly (almost imperceptibly) arched, yet supportive. The back is never long, swayed, or roached.
Croup: Flat and level with the back or gently sloped.
Underline: Slight tuck-up present, or the underline may run parallel to the topline. The underline is taut and firm, without any indication of sagging or excess weight.
Ribs: Long, well-sprung, well-laid-back, and oval-shaped, never barrel-chested or slab-sided.
Tail: Set high on the croup. It is thick at the base and tapering toward the tip. It may be short to medium in length and straight, gently curved, or it may be curled over the back in a loose or tight single or double curl. Preference is given to a straight tail. The tail is carried in accordance with the dog’s mood and energy level, but never tucked.

Forequarters and Hindquarters

Forequarters: Forequarters are always in balance with the hindquarters. Forequarters are well-angulated with well-laid-back shoulder blades. Shoulder blades are approximately equal in length to the upper arm and forearm.
Elbows: Elbows are close to the body. The point of the elbows is approximately half the dog’s height at the withers, or the distance from the withers to the elbows may be just greater than the distance from the elbow to the ground.
Forelegs: Frontal View: Straight, of good muscle, of moderate bone, and parallel to one another.
Side View: The forelimbs appear straight with strong pasterns.
Pasterns: Never weak or broken.
Hindquarters: Upper thigh and lower thigh are equal in length, strong, sturdy, of moderate bone, and well-muscled.
Rear View: When viewed from the rear, the rear pasterns are parallel to one another.
Side View: Good angulation will allow the rear toes to align with the point of the rump or within one to two paw-lengths behind the point of the rump, with the rear pasterns remaining perpendicular to the ground and parallel to one another.
Stifle Joint: Well-angulated with a good bend to well-let-down rear pasterns.
Angulations: Angulation of hindquarters is always in balance with angulation of forequarters.
Feet: Oval to round and compact, with well-arched toes and tough pads.

Coat

Skin: Well-fitted, yet supple. The skin should never obstruct the outline of the dog.
Coat Type: The coat is short, smooth, and close to the body throughout. The texture is soft and glossy.
Coat Color or Pattern: CKC recognizes two color varieties of the Pug breed: the standard color and nonstandard color variety.
Standard coat color variety: Fawn, apricot, seal or shaded fawn (all with black mask), or solid black.

Nonstandard coat color variety: Cream or white (both with or without melanistic mask), brindle, silver fawn (with silver/grey mask).

Movement

The Pug’s movement should be steady, strong, and purposeful. A slight rolling action is forgivable, so long as it doesn’t appear constrained, cumbersome, or inefficient. The characteristics of healthy structure are evident: when moving away, the forelegs and rear pasterns should remain parallel to one another. When viewing movement from the front, the forelegs should remain parallel, with elbows and paws moving neither in nor out. From the rear, the back pads should be visible when the rear legs are extended. As speed increases, the forelimbs and hindlimbs will converge to the centerline of gravity. From the side, the topline should remain firm and level. Good reach of movement in the front allows the forepaw to extend out in a line with the nose. The width between the forefeet when extended should be approximately equal to the width between the hindfeet when extended, indicating balance, good reach, and good drive. Dogs that exhibit any sign of breathing or locomotive difficulty shall be disqualified from the show ring.

Temperament

The Pug is a charming and even-tempered breed. He is known for his outgoing, sociable, and playful nature. He is intelligent and capable of learning many commands and tricks. He is an especially suitable lap dog, possessing a strong devotion toward his family. Any unprovoked aggressive or fearful behavior toward people is incorrect for this breed.

Faults

All dogs should be in proper healthy condition, free from disease or defect. Any departure from this description is considered a fault. Unless altered, all male dogs should have two fully descended testicles.