Pomeranian.jpg
Breed Group Group 2: Spitz and Nordic Breeds
Sub-group 2-B: European Spitz Breeds
Origin Country Germany
Weight Males: 4-7 pounds. Females: 3-6 pounds.
Height Males: 7-12 inches. Females: 7-12 inches.
Other Name(s) Dwarf Spitz, Pom, Toy German Spitz, Zwergspitz
Breed Type Pure
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Pomeranian

Breed Group Group 2: Spitz and Nordic Breeds
Sub-group 2-B: European Spitz Breeds
Origin Country Germany
Weight Males: 4-7 pounds. Females: 3-6 pounds.
Height Males: 7-12 inches. Females: 7-12 inches.
Other Name(s) Dwarf Spitz, Pom, Toy German Spitz, Zwergspitz
Breed Type Pure
click here for FULL BREED STANDARD

Breed Spotlight

Origins

The remains of dogs closely resembling the Pomeranian have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs. However, the history of the modern breed begins in fourteenth century Pomerania, an area that covered parts of present-day Poland and Germany. There, the Pom’s ancestors, the much larger German Spitz varieties, were mainly used as guard dogs. The Spitz breed has always been divided according to size and color in its native homeland of Germany, which is still true today. The German Spitz breed includes the modern-day Wolfspitz (or Keeshond), Gross Spitz (Giant Spitz), Mittelspitz (Medium Spitz), Kleinspitz (Small Spitz), and the smallest German Spitz, the Zwergspitz (Dwarf Spitz)—or as we know it, the Pomeranian.

It was in the late 1700s that Queen Charlotte—originally from Germany—first brought the Spitz to England, where the breed’s popularity began to grow. Following in her grandmother’s footsteps, Queen Victoria also had quite a fondness for the smallest Spitz and obtained an especially small specimen (named Marco) from Pomerania. Not long after, the breed’s rise in royal popularity spilled over into the common circles, and only the smallest of the Spitz varieties were known as Pomeranians.

Breed Characteristics

Head: Somewhat mesaticephalic skull-type, moderate in size, and in proportion to the rest of the body. When viewed from above, the Pomeranian’s head forms a blunt wedge, with the topskull being the widest part, narrowing sharply down the short muzzle. The topskull is rounded, but never domed. The forehead appears steep and gently sloped from the front or side due to the thick head coat. The head is clean-cut and without excess skin or wrinkle.
Eyes: Moderate in size, oval to almond in shape, and obliquely set. The eye color should be as dark as possible. The eye rims are well-fitted and well-pigmented. The eyes are never bulging. There should be sufficient bone in the surrounding orbital sockets to protect the eyes.
Ears: Very small in size, set high on the skull, and close together. The ears are firmly erect, with only the top half protruding through the head coat. The tips should point straight up, never out to the side. The ears are never long, overly large, or broken.
Muzzle: The muzzle is full and broad. The muzzle plane is level. Upper and lower jaws have good bone substance, appearing strong and well-developed, never appearing short, snubbed, snipy, or weak.
Nose: The nose is well-pigmented and black, or self-colored according to the coat. The nostrils are well-opened.
Neck: Moderate length allows for proud head carriage, strongly muscled with a slight arch. The neck tapers smoothly from the deeper and broader body toward the head. The neck is clean-cut, without excess skin, throatiness, or dewlap.
Chest: Deep and broad, but never wider than deep. The brisket extends to the point of the elbows.
Body: Short in length, compact, solid, and of good substance. The body is never racy or refined. Width at forequarters is approximately equal to the width at the hindquarters.
Feet: Very small, dainty, oval to round, compact, with well-arched toes and tough pads.
Tail: Set high on the croup, thick at the base, and tapering toward the tip. The tail is carried up, lying straight and flat across the back, covering a large portion of the topline, and altering the dog’s overall silhouette. It is never tucked. The tail is of a medium length, with the tip of the last vertebrae extending to the hock joints when held down.
Movement: Smooth, springy, balanced, and brisk movements. The characteristics of healthy structure are evident: when moving away, the forelegs and rear pasterns should remain parallel to one another. When viewing movement from the front, the forelegs should remain parallel, with elbows and paws moving neither in nor out. From the rear, the back pads should be visible when the rear legs are extended. As speed increases, the forelimbs and hindlimbs will converge to the centerline of gravity. From the side, the topline should remain firm and level. Good reach of movement in the front allows the forepaw to extend out in a line with the nose. The width between the forefeet when extended should be approximately equal to the width between the hindfeet when extended, indicating balance, good reach, and good drive. Dogs that exhibit any sign of breathing or locomotive difficulty shall be disqualified from the show ring.
Temperament: As with all Spitz breeds, the Pomeranian is easily trained, intelligent, and attentive. He is remarkably dedicated to his family and owner. Unlike other Spitz, the Pom’s small size and the owner’s tendency to dote on him often results in the Pom developing a notoriously cheeky personality. Spitz breeds can be wary of strangers, which makes the Pomeranian a wonderful guard dog. Any unprovoked aggressive or fearful behavior toward people is incorrect for this breed.
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Breed Standard

BREED GROUP 2: Spitz and Nordic Breeds

Proportions: Square in proportion to the length of the body, measured from the point of the forechest to the point of the rump, being equal to the height at the withers. The ideal body height-to-length ratio is 1:1. Females may be slightly longer. The body is compact and well put together, with sturdy substance and medium bone.

Head

General Appearance: Somewhat mesaticephalic skull-type, moderate in size, and in proportion to the rest of the body. When viewed from above, the Pomeranian’s head forms a blunt wedge, with the topskull being the widest part, narrowing sharply down the short muzzle. The topskull is rounded, but never domed. The forehead appears steep and gently sloped from the front or side due to the thick head coat. The head is clean-cut and without excess skin or wrinkle.
Expression: Expressive, inquisitive, intelligent, and somewhat cheeky.
Stop: The stop is definite, preferably forming a 90-degree angle between the topskull and muzzle.
Skull: The ideal muzzle-to-skull ratio is 2:1, with the topskull being longer than the muzzle.
The ideal muzzle-to-skull axis is convergent.
Muzzle: The muzzle is full and broad. The muzzle plane is level. Upper and lower jaws have good bone substance, appearing strong and well-developed, never appearing short, snubbed, snipy, or weak.
Lips or Flews: Lips are clean and fit tightly over the teeth and jaws.
Nose: The nose is well-pigmented and black, or self-colored according to the coat. The nostrils are well-opened.
Cheeks: Some padding of the cheek is present. The cheeks should not appear chiseled or coarse.
Dentition and Bite: Forty-two strong, clean, and white teeth. Bite may be level, scissor, or reverse-scissor. Contact must be made between the top and bottom incisors.
Eyes: Moderate in size, oval to almond in shape, and obliquely set. The eye color should be as dark as possible. The eye rims are well-fitted and well-pigmented. The eyes are never bulging. There should be sufficient bone in the surrounding orbital sockets to protect the eyes.
Ears: Very small in size, set high on the skull, and close together. The ears are firmly erect, with only the top half protruding through the head coat. The tips should point straight up, never out to the side. The ears are never long, overly large, or broken.

Body and Tail

General Description: Short in length, compact, solid, and of good substance. The body is never racy or refined. Width at forequarters is approximately equal to the width at the hindquarters.
Neck: Moderate length allows for proud head carriage, strongly muscled with a slight arch. The neck tapers smoothly from the deeper and broader body toward the head. The neck is clean-cut, without excess skin, throatiness, or dewlap.
Chest: Deep and broad, but never wider than deep. The brisket extends to the point of the elbows.
Topline: Short and level from withers to croup. The back is short, broad, strongly muscled, and straight, yet supple. The loin is taut, flat, and level. The back is never long, swayed, or roached. The plumed tail lies flat across and covers part of the topline, giving the Pomeranian’s outline the appearance of a right-angled triangle.
Croup: Flat and level with the back.
Underline: Slight tuck-up present. The underline is taut and firm, without any indication of sagging or excess weight.
Ribs: Long, well-sprung, well-laid-back, and oval-shaped, never barrel-chested or slab-sided.
Tail: Set high on the croup, thick at the base, and tapering toward the tip. The tail is carried up, lying straight and flat across the back, covering a large portion of the topline, and altering the dog’s overall silhouette. It is never tucked. The tail is of a medium length, with the tip of the last vertebrae extending to the hock joints when held down.

Forequarters and Hindquarters

Forequarters: Forequarters are always in balance with the hindquarters. Forequarters are well-angulated with well-laid-back shoulder blades. Shoulder blades are approximately equal in length to the upper arm and forearm.
Elbows: Elbows are close to the body. The point of the elbows is approximately half the dog’s height at the withers.
Forelegs: Frontal View: Straight, of good muscle, of moderate bone, and parallel to one another.
Side View: The forelimbs appear straight with strong pasterns.
Pasterns: Never weak or broken.
Hindquarters: Upper thigh and lower thigh are equal in length, strong, sturdy, of moderate bone,
and well-muscled.
Stifle Joint: Well-angulated with a good bend to well-let-down rear pasterns.
Angulations: Angulation of hindquarters is always in balance with angulation of forequarters.
Feet: Very small, dainty, oval to round, compact, with well-arched toes and tough pads.

Coat

Skin: Well-fitted, yet supple. The skin should never obstruct the outline of the dog.
Coat Type: Long, straight, harsh, stand-offish outer coat with thick mane, frill, well-feathered on back of legs forming trousers, with bushy plumed tail. Coat is short on front of legs, face, ears, and muzzle. Undercoat is thick, downy, and supports outer coat.
Coat Color or Pattern: All coat colors and patterns are equally permissible. Large patches or amounts of white, indicating homogenous merle genotype/phenotype, is undesirable.

Movement

Smooth, springy, balanced, and brisk movements. The characteristics of healthy structure are evident: when moving away, the forelegs and rear pasterns should remain parallel to one another. When viewing movement from the front, the forelegs should remain parallel, with elbows and paws moving neither in nor out. From the rear, the back pads should be visible when the rear legs are extended. As speed increases, the forelimbs and hindlimbs will converge to the centerline of gravity. From the side, the topline should remain firm and level. Good reach of movement in the front allows the forepaw to extend out in a line with the nose. The width between the forefeet when extended should be approximately equal to the width between the hindfeet when extended, indicating balance, good reach, and good drive. Dogs that exhibit any sign of breathing or locomotive difficulty shall be disqualified from the show ring.

Temperament

As with all Spitz breeds, the Pomeranian is easily trained, intelligent, and attentive. He is remarkably dedicated to his family and owner. Unlike other Spitz, the Pom’s small size and the owner’s tendency to dote on him often results in the Pom developing a notoriously cheeky personality. Spitz breeds can be wary of strangers, which makes the Pomeranian a wonderful guard dog. Any unprovoked aggressive or fearful behavior toward people is incorrect for this breed.

Faults

All dogs should be in proper healthy condition and free from disease or defect. Any departure from this description is considered a fault. Unless altered, all male dogs should have two fully descended testicles.