Eskimo Dog.jpg
Breed Group Group 2: Spitz and Nordic Breeds
Sub-group 2-D: Nordic Sled Dogs
Origin Country Greenland/Arctic Region
Weight Males: 66-105 pounds. Females: 40-91 pounds.
Height Males: 23-28 inches. Females: 19-24 inches.
Other Name(s) Canadian Eskimo Dog, Canadian Inuit Dog, Esquimaux, Gronlandshund, Qimmiq, Quimmeq Qimuttoq
Breed Type Pure
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Eskimo Dog

Breed Group Group 2: Spitz and Nordic Breeds
Sub-group 2-D: Nordic Sled Dogs
Origin Country Greenland/Arctic Region
Weight Males: 66-105 pounds. Females: 40-91 pounds.
Height Males: 23-28 inches. Females: 19-24 inches.
Other Name(s) Canadian Eskimo Dog, Canadian Inuit Dog, Esquimaux, Gronlandshund, Qimmiq, Quimmeq Qimuttoq
Breed Type Pure
click here for FULL BREED STANDARD

Origins

The ancestors of the Canadian Eskimo Dog and the Greenland Dog have been used by the Inuit people, who were nomadic natives of the Arctic Circle, for thousands of years. These dogs would pull sleds in the winter, haul packs in the summer, hunt polar bears and seals, protect the Inuit people from bears, wolves, and other large predators. They were also used as a source of fur and food, with their furs being favored over wolf fur due its durability and insulating properties. Additionally, their urine was used in traditional medicine.

Eventually, these dogs were brought to Greenland by the Inuits, where they continued to play an integral part of life for both the Inuits and the Greenlanders for centuries. Eventually, as machines and automobiles became popular and accessible, the Greenland Dog became less prominent. The breed nearly reached extinction and was considered rare in his native land. However, a handful of breed enthusiasts have worked to collect stock and bring the numbers back up.

While some Inuit people settled into Greenland with their dogs, others migrated through the Canadian Arctic Circle during the twelfth century. Like the Inuit who settled Greenland, they brought with them their dogs, which were essential for life, serving the same purposes and filling the same needs of food, fur, hunting, protection, and draught work. However, the Canadian Eskimo Dogs also faced the same fate. As transportation and hunting technology became more prevalent, the need for the dogs dwindled until they also neared extinction. Once again, breed enthusiasts worked hard to bring the numbers back up and to keep the bloodlines healthy.

Today, there is some controversy as to whether or not the two are the same breeds. Many organizations consider them two separate, yet interchangeable breeds. For instance, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale registers only the “Greenland Dog,” but list “Grønlandshund/Qimmeq Qimuttoq” as the breeds other names. Grønlandshund is the name for the breed in Greenland, but Quimmeq, or Quimmiq, is the Inuit word for “dog” and listed as the alternative name for both the Greenland Dog and the Canadian Eskimo Dog.

What is certain is that both breeds descend from the same ancestors thousands of years ago. Due to their similarities in genetics and origin, and in consideration for keeping both breeds genetic pools as diverse and healthy as possible, Continental Kennel Club considers them different sub-breeds of the Inuit Qimmic breed.

Breed Characteristics

Head: Mesaticephalic skull-type, moderate in size, wedge-shaped, and somewhat large, yet in proportion to the rest of the body. The topskull is broad, being as broad (measured across the top in front of the ears) as it is long (measured from occiput to stop). It is slightly arched when viewed in profile or from the front. The forehead is well developed, with good depth, never flat and sloped. The head is clean-cut without excess skin or wrinkle.
Eyes: Moderate in size, oval to almond in shape, and ranging from green amber, hazel, or medium to dark brown in color. Blue or bicolored eyes are often found in the nonstandard color variety but are incorrect for the standard color variety. They eyes may be set just a trifle oblique (not so much as to give a wild expression). The eye rims are well-fitted and well-pigmented in areas of color on the coat. The eyes are never bulging. There should be sufficient bone in the surrounding orbital sockets to protect the eyes. Any signs of entropion or ectropion are incorrect for this breed.
Ears: Fairly small in size. Set fairly high on the skull, but never too close. Outer corners may be level with the outer eye corners. Triangle in shape, with slightly rounded tips that orient at approximately the eleven o’clock and one o’clock position. They are firmly erect. The ears are never long, overly large, or broken. They are highly mobile and expressive.
Muzzle: The muzzle is full, deep, and broad. The plane, or bridge of the muzzle, is straight and level. It tapers gradually from the broad base toward the nose, but is never pointed. It is wedge-shaped. Upper and lower jaws are well-developed, approximately equal in length, and have good bone substance, never appearing snipy or weak.
Nose: The nose is well-pigmented and black, or self-colored according to the coat. The nostrils are well-opened. The nose is flush with the vertical line of the end of the muzzle. Seasonal fading, known as “snow nose,” or “winter nose,” is perfectly acceptable, as is butterfly noses.
Neck: Moderate length allows for good movement and head carriage. It is thick, powerfully muscled, and with a slight arch. The neck tapers smoothly from the deeper and broader body toward the head. The neck is clean-cut and without excess skin, throatiness, or dewlap.
Chest: Deep and broad, but never wider than deep. The brisket extends to the point of the elbows. The forechest is spacious and well-developed, but without being excessively pronounced.
Body: Compact, solid, deep, and of good substance. The body is never racy and refined, nor is it heavy and clumsy. It is capable of both endurance and power. Width at forequarters is approximately equal to the width at the hindquarters.
Feet: Large, oval to round, and compact, with well-arched toes and tough pads.
Tail: Set high on the croup. It is thick at the base and tapering toward the tip. The tail is carried in accordance with the dog’s mood and energy level, curved or just slightly curled up over the back, or in a neutral position. The tail should never be tucked. The tail is of a moderate length, with the tip of the last vertebrae extending to the hock joints when held down.
Movement: Fluent, tireless, enduring, energetic, effortless, and efficient, the characteristics of healthy structure are evident: when moving away, the forelegs and rear pasterns should remain parallel to one another. When viewing movement from the front, the forelegs should remain parallel, with elbows and paws moving neither in nor out. From the rear, the back pads should be visible when the rear legs are extended. As speed increases, the forelimbs and hindlimbs will converge to the centerline of gravity. From the side, the topline should remain firm and level. Good reach of movement in the front allows the forepaw to extend out in a line with the nose. The width between the forefeet when extended should be approximately equal to the width between the hindfeet when extended, indicating balance, good reach, and good drive. Dogs that exhibit any sign of breathing or locomotive difficulty shall be disqualified from the show ring.
Temperament: The Inuit Qimmiq dogs are products of their environment. They are rugged, enduring, self-confident, independent and bold. Being used for both hunting and as a sled dog, these dogs can have rather high prey and roaming instincts. For this reason, early puppy socialization and obedience training is a must! Being from thousands of years of working dogs, these dogs are best suited to have a job, or they will find something to occupy themselves that is not always constructive or safe, resulting in destructive behaviors. To those who know and love them, well-adjusted Greenland dogs are hardworking and loyal companions. Any unprovoked aggressive or fearful behavior toward people is incorrect for this breed.
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Breed Standard

BREED GROUP 2: Spitz and Nordic Breeds

Proportions: Off-square to slightly rectangular with length of the body, measured from the point of the forechest to the point of the rump, being equal to, or just slightly greater than, the height at the withers. The ideal body-height-to-length ratio is between 1:1 and 10:9. Females may be slightly longer. The body is well put together, with sturdy substance and strong, sturdy bone. Males should appear masculine, being more substantial in size and mass, while females should appear more feminine and slightly less substantial. Neither should lack overall type.

Head

General Appearance: Mesaticephalic skull-type, moderate in size, wedge-shaped, and somewhat large, yet in proportion to the rest of the body. The topskull is broad, being as broad (measured across the top in front of the ears) as it is long (measured from occiput to stop). It is slightly arched when viewed in profile or from the front. The forehead is well developed, with good depth, never flat and sloped. The head is clean-cut without excess skin or wrinkle.
Expression: Watchful, self-composed, inquisitive, frank, and courageous.
Stop: The stop is definite, but never abrupt or excessively steep.
Skull: The ideal muzzle-to-skull ratio is between 1:1 and 2:3 with the topskull being equal to or just longer than the muzzle.
The ideal muzzle-to-skull axis is parallel, or may be slightly convergent.
Muzzle: The muzzle is full, deep, and broad. The plane, or bridge of the muzzle, is straight and level. It tapers gradually from the broad base toward the nose, but is never pointed. It is wedge-shaped. Upper and lower jaws are well-developed, approximately equal in length, and have good bone substance, never appearing snipy or weak.
Lips or Flews: Lips are clean and fit tightly over the teeth and jaws. The lips should never appear pendulous, droopy, or “wet.”
Nose: The nose is well-pigmented and black, or self-colored according to the coat. The nostrils are well-opened. The nose is flush with the vertical line of the end of the muzzle. Seasonal fading, known as “snow nose,” or “winter nose,” is perfectly acceptable, as is butterfly noses.
Cheeks: The cheeks are well-developed and powerfully-muscled. They should not appear chiseled.
Dentition and Bite: Forty-two strong, clean, white teeth. Bite may be level, scissor, or reverse-scissor. Contact must be made between the top and bottom incisors. Missing or broken teeth as a result of routine work is not to be penalized.
Eyes: Moderate in size, oval to almond in shape, and ranging from green amber, hazel, or medium to dark brown in color. Blue or bicolored eyes are often found in the nonstandard color variety but are incorrect for the standard color variety. They eyes may be set just a trifle oblique (not so much as to give a wild expression). The eye rims are well-fitted and well-pigmented in areas of color on the coat. The eyes are never bulging. There should be sufficient bone in the surrounding orbital sockets to protect the eyes. Any signs of entropion or ectropion are incorrect for this breed.
Ears: Fairly small in size. Set fairly high on the skull, but never too close. Outer corners may be level with the outer eye corners. Triangle in shape, with slightly rounded tips that orient at approximately the eleven o’clock and one o’clock position. They are firmly erect. The ears are never long, overly large, or broken. They are highly mobile and expressive.

Body and Tail

General Description: Compact, solid, deep, and of good substance. The body is never racy and refined, nor is it heavy and clumsy. It is capable of both endurance and power. Width at forequarters is approximately equal to the width at the hindquarters.
Neck: Moderate length allows for good movement and head carriage. It is thick, powerfully muscled, and with a slight arch. The neck tapers smoothly from the deeper and broader body toward the head. The neck is clean-cut and without excess skin, throatiness, or dewlap.
Chest: Deep and broad, but never wider than deep. The brisket extends to the point of the elbows. The forechest is spacious and well-developed, but without being excessively pronounced.
Topline: Straight and level or just slightly sloped from withers to croup. The back is of a good length, broad, strongly muscled, and straight, yet supple. The loin is taut, flat and level, or slightly arched, yet supportive. The back is never elongated swayed or roached.
Croup: Broad, powerful, and gently sloped.
Underline: Slightly tucked-up, or the underline may run parallel to the topline. The underline is taut and firm, without any indication of sagging or excess weight.
Ribs: Long, well-sprung, well-laid-back, and oval-shaped, never barrel-chested or slab-sided.
Tail: Set high on the croup. It is thick at the base and tapering toward the tip. The tail is carried in accordance with the dog’s mood and energy level, curved or just slightly curled up over the back, or in a neutral position. The tail should never be tucked. The tail is of a moderate length, with the tip of the last vertebrae extending to the hock joints when held down.

Forequarters and Hindquarters

Forequarters: Forequarters are always in balance with the hindquarters. Forequarters are well-angulated with well-laid-back shoulder blades. Shoulder blades may be approximately equal in length to the upper arm and forearm, or the forearm may be somewhat longer than the shoulder blade and upper arm.
Elbows: Elbows are close to the body. The distance from the withers to the brisket may be equal to, or just less than, the distance from the elbows to the ground.
Forelegs: Frontal View: Straight, of good muscle, of solid and sturdy bone, and parallel to one another.
Side View: The forelimbs appear straight with strong pasterns.
Pasterns: Never weak or broken.
Hindquarters: Upper thigh and lower thigh are equal in length, strong, of solid and sturdy bone, and well-muscled.
Rear View: When viewed from the rear, the rear pasterns are parallel to one another.
Side View: Good angulation will allow the rear toes to align with the point of the rump or within one to two paw-lengths behind the point of the rump, with the rear pasterns remaining perpendicular to the ground and parallel to one another.
Stifle Joint: Well-angulated with a good bend to well-let-down rear pasterns.
Angulations: Angulation of hindquarters is always in balance with angulation of forequarters.
Feet: Large, oval to round, and compact, with well-arched toes and tough pads.

Coat

Skin: Well-fitted, yet supple. The skin should never obstruct the outline of the dog.
Coat Type: Double-coated with a soft, dense undercoat. The outercoat consists of straight, medium to medium-long (between three to six inches) guard hairs. The coat is dense, coarse, and stand-offish or bushy. It is shorter on the muzzle, face, topskull, and lower legs. It is longer and thicker on the body, being thickest from the cheek ruffs, neck, chest, and shoulders, forming a slight ruff and mane, which is more pronounced in males than females. The tail appears large and bushy. The feet are well-furred, with fur growing thick and long between the toes and during harsh winter conditions, will completely cover the pads. Clipping or scissoring of the coat is prohibited.
Coat Color or Pattern: CKC recognizes two color varieties of the Inuit Qimmiq, Eskimo Dog, and Greenland Dog breed: the standard color and nonstandard color variety.
Standard coat color variety: Any color, including red, buff, cinnamon, sable, agouti, black, liver, and gray. All with or without white markings, tricolor (black or liver with tan points), or solid white. White with any of the above listed color markings.
Nonstandard coat color variety: Any coat color not included in the listed standard coat colors and markings; merle markings. Large patches or amounts of white indicating homogenous merle genotype/phenotype are undesirable.

Movement

Fluent, tireless, enduring, energetic, effortless, and efficient, the characteristics of healthy structure are evident: when moving away, the forelegs and rear pasterns should remain parallel to one another. When viewing movement from the front, the forelegs should remain parallel, with elbows and paws moving neither in nor out. From the rear, the back pads should be visible when the rear legs are extended. As speed increases, the forelimbs and hindlimbs will converge to the centerline of gravity. From the side, the topline should remain firm and level. Good reach of movement in the front allows the forepaw to extend out in a line with the nose. The width between the forefeet when extended should be approximately equal to the width between the hindfeet when extended, indicating balance, good reach, and good drive. Dogs that exhibit any sign of breathing or locomotive difficulty shall be disqualified from the show ring.

Temperament

The Inuit Qimmiq dogs are products of their environment. They are rugged, enduring, self-confident, independent and bold. Being used for both hunting and as a sled dog, these dogs can have rather high prey and roaming instincts. For this reason, early puppy socialization and obedience training is a must! Being from thousands of years of working dogs, these dogs are best suited to have a job, or they will find something to occupy themselves that is not always constructive or safe, resulting in destructive behaviors. To those who know and love them, well-adjusted Greenland dogs are hardworking and loyal companions. Any unprovoked aggressive or fearful behavior toward people is incorrect for this breed.

Faults

All dogs should be in proper healthy condition, free from disease or defect. Any departure from this description is considered a fault. Unless altered, all male dogs should have two fully descended testicles.