MINIATURE-PINSCHER.jpg
Breed Group Group 5: Pinschers and Schnauzers
Sub-group 5-B: Small Pinschers and Schnauzers
Origin Country Germany
Weight Males: 9-13 pounds. Females: 9-13 pounds.
Height Males: 10-13 inches. Females: 10-13 inches.
Other Name(s) Min Pin, Zwergpinscher
Breed Type Pure
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Miniature Pinscher

Breed Group Group 5: Pinschers and Schnauzers
Sub-group 5-B: Small Pinschers and Schnauzers
Origin Country Germany
Weight Males: 9-13 pounds. Females: 9-13 pounds.
Height Males: 10-13 inches. Females: 10-13 inches.
Other Name(s) Min Pin, Zwergpinscher
Breed Type Pure
click here for FULL BREED STANDARD

Origins

Like many breeds that have been around for several centuries, the exact origin of the Miniature Pinscher (or MinPin) breed is not completely known. Like all of the other breeds in the Pinscher and Schnauzer group, the MinPin’s origins can be traced back to Germany. It is there that his ancestors worked tirelessly as tenacious ratters for centuries. These little dogs kept the disease-spreading rodent and pest population in check when vaccines and modern medicine were still centuries away. The term “pinscher” describes the group’s manner of working, using their mouths to bite, or “pinch.” He is a smaller replica of his older and larger cousin, the German Pinscher (not the Doberman Pinscher, which was also modeled off of the German Pinscher). It is believed that the old German Pinschers were crossed to the ancestors of the modern-day Italian Greyhound, Dachshunds, and other small dogs of the time and area.

When the MinPin gained recognition and popularity as a breed around the 1890s, its success kicked off a contest to see who could produce the smallest specimens. However, the smaller-framed dogs were left vulnerable to injury and disease. Eventually, breeders realized the error of their ways, and they once again produced dogs of sound structure and suitable size. By the time World War II had ended, the breed’s popularity began to soar. The prancing gait exhibited by many in the breed caught the eye of many dog aficionados. The MinPin was first brought to the American show ring in the 1920s, and from that point on it has remained an easily recognized and popular small pinscher breed throughout the world.

Breed Characteristics

Head: Mesaticephalic skull type, moderate in size, forming a somewhat elongated wedge-shape, and in proportion to the rest of the body. The skull is flat from the front and in profile, of a moderate width, and tapering toward the muzzle from all directions. The occiput is only slightly prominent. The cheeks and temporalis areas are smoothly muscled to denote strength. The head is clean-cut without excess skin or wrinkle. Total head length from occiput to nose is equal to ½ the length of the topline.
Eyes: Moderate in size, oval to almond in shape, and may be slightly obliquely set. They are medium to dark brown in color, but may be lighter in liver and nonstandard color varieties. The eye rims are well-fitted and well-pigmented. The eyes are never bulging. There should be sufficient bone in the surrounding orbital sockets to protect the eyes.
Ears: Somewhat small to medium in size, set high on the skull, and may be natural or surgically cropped, firmly erect, pricked, drop, button, rose, semi-erect, or tulip. Preference is given to natural drop ears with tips that lie close to the head and folds that remain level with the topline of the skull. The ears are never long or overly large. Cropped ears may be cropped short, or long and erect.
Muzzle: The muzzle is strongly developed and a prominent feature. It is full and tapering toward the end. Upper and lower jaws have good bone substance, appearing strong, well-developed, and equal in length. They are never snipy or weak.
Nose: The nose is well-pigmented and black, or self-colored according to the coat in nonstandard color varieties. The nostrils are well-opened.
Neck: Moderate length allows for proud head carriage, strongly muscled with an arch. The neck tapers smoothly from the deeper and broader body toward the head. The neck is clean-cut and without excess skin, throatiness, or dewlap.
Chest: Deep and broad, but never wider than deep. The brisket extends to the point of the elbows. The point of the sternum is somewhat prominent, giving the forechest a distinct profile.
Body: Compact and of good substance. The body is never racy or refined like that of an Italian Greyhound, nor is it stout like that of a Chihuahua. The body is slightly wedge-shaped, muscular, and without excess tuck-up. The width at the forequarters is approximately equal to the width at the hindquarters.
Feet: Small, oval to round, and compact, with well-arched toes and tough pads.
Tail: Set high on the croup. It is thick at the base and tapering toward the tip. The tail is carried in accordance with the dog’s mood and energy level, held high above the topline, and never tucked. Tail may be left natural (preferred) or docked short. Natural tails are of a moderately long length, with the tip of the last vertebrae extending to the hock joints when held down. Natural tails may be straight, gently curved, sickled, sabered, or forming a circle. Docked tails are cut short to within two tail vertebrae.
Movement: The Miniature Pinscher is well-known for its hackney-like gait. The hackney-like gait is the result of an imbalance between the forequarter and hindquarter angulations, with the forequarters being less angulated than the hindquarters. While impressive and fun to watch, like all imbalanced gaits, it is inefficient, and therefore preference should be given to healthy, efficient-trotting gaits, where the characteristics of healthy structure are evident and without exaggeration or imbalance. The characteristics of healthy structure are evident: when moving away, the forelegs and rear pasterns should remain parallel to one another. When viewing movement from the front, the forelegs should remain parallel, with elbows and paws moving neither in nor out. From the rear, the back pads should be visible when the rear legs are extended. As speed increases, the forelimbs and hindlimbs will converge to the centerline of gravity. From the side, the topline should remain firm and level. Good reach of movement in the front allows the forepaw to extend out in a line with the nose. The width between the forefeet when extended should be approximately equal to the width between the hindfeet when extended, indicating balance, good reach, and good drive. Dogs that exhibit any sign of breathing or locomotive difficulty shall be disqualified from the show ring.
Temperament: The Miniature Pinscher is a wonderful and devoted companion dog. He is intelligent, watchful, eager to learn, lively, and even-tempered. Mature individuals exhibit a great deal of self-composure. The “pinsching” instincts can be quite strong in some individuals, and therefore, supervision around smaller pets and obedience training is necessary. Like Dobermans, they are very people-oriented dogs and can become somewhat of a shadow. Therefore, they enjoy accompanying their people everywhere they go. Any unprovoked aggressive or fearful behavior toward people is incorrect for this breed.
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Breed Standard

BREED GROUP 5: Pinschers and Schnauzers

Proportions: Square in proportion, with length of the body, measured from the point of the forechest to the point of the rump being equal to the height at the withers. The ideal body height to length ratio is between 1:1 and 10:9. Females may be slightly longer. The body is well put together, with sturdy substance and medium bone. The Miniature Pinscher is a pint-sized replica of the German Pinscher.

Head

General Appearance: Mesaticephalic skull type, moderate in size, forming a somewhat elongated wedge-shape, and in proportion to the rest of the body. The skull is flat from the front and in profile, of a moderate width, and tapering toward the muzzle from all directions. The occiput is only slightly prominent. The cheeks and temporalis areas are smoothly muscled to denote strength. The head is clean-cut without excess skin or wrinkle. Total head length from occiput to nose is equal to ½ the length of the topline.
Expression: Alert, proud, lively, and keen.
Stop: The stop is gently sloping, yet clearly defined. It is never definite or forming a right angle.
Skull: The ideal muzzle-to-skull ratio is 1:1, with the topskull being equal to the muzzle.
The ideal muzzle-to-skull axis is parallel.
Muzzle: The muzzle is strongly developed and a prominent feature. It is full and tapering toward the end. Upper and lower jaws have good bone substance, appearing strong, well-developed, and equal in length. They are never snipy or weak.
Lips or Flews: Lips are clean and fit tightly over the teeth and jaws.
Nose: The nose is well-pigmented and black, or self-colored according to the coat in nonstandard color varieties. The nostrils are well-opened.
Cheeks: The cheeks are smoothly muscled and never chiseled or coarse.
Dentition and Bite: Forty-two strong, clean, white teeth. Bite may be level or scissor. Contact must be made between the top and bottom incisors. Missing or broken teeth as a result of routine work is not to be penalized.
Eyes: Moderate in size, oval to almond in shape, and may be slightly obliquely set. They are medium to dark brown in color, but may be lighter in liver and nonstandard color varieties. The eye rims are well-fitted and well-pigmented. The eyes are never bulging. There should be sufficient bone in the surrounding orbital sockets to protect the eyes.
Ears: Somewhat small to medium in size, set high on the skull, and may be natural or surgically cropped, firmly erect, pricked, drop, button, rose, semi-erect, or tulip. Preference is given to natural drop ears with tips that lie close to the head and folds that remain level with the topline of the skull. The ears are never long or overly large. Cropped ears may be cropped short, or long and erect.

Body and Tail

General Description: Compact and of good substance. The body is never racy or refined like that of an Italian Greyhound, nor is it stout like that of a Chihuahua. The body is slightly wedge-shaped, muscular, and without excess tuck-up. The width at the forequarters is approximately equal to the width at the hindquarters.
Neck: Moderate length allows for proud head carriage, strongly muscled with an arch. The neck tapers smoothly from the deeper and broader body toward the head. The neck is clean-cut and without excess skin, throatiness, or dewlap.
Chest: Deep and broad, but never wider than deep. The brisket extends to the point of the elbows. The point of the sternum is somewhat prominent, giving the forechest a distinct profile.
Topline: Straight and slightly sloped from prominent withers to croup. The back is broad, strongly muscled, and straight, yet supple. The loin is taut, flat and level, or slightly arched, yet supportive. The back is never swayed or roached.
Croup: Flat and level with the back, or gently sloped.
Underline: Slight to moderate tuck-up. The underline is taut and firm, without any indication of sagging or
excess weight.
Ribs: Long, well-sprung, well-laid-back, and oval-shaped, never barrel-chested or slab-sided.
Tail: Set high on the croup. It is thick at the base and tapering toward the tip. The tail is carried in accordance with the dog’s mood and energy level, held high above the topline, and never tucked. Tail may be left natural (preferred) or docked short. Natural tails are of a moderately long length, with the tip of the last vertebrae extending to the hock joints when held down. Natural tails may be straight, gently curved, sickled, sabered, or forming a circle. Docked tails are cut short to within two tail vertebrae.

Forequarters and Hindquarters

Forequarters: Forequarters are always in balance with the hindquarters. Forequarters are well-angulated with well-laid-back shoulder blades. Shoulder blades are approximately equal in length to the upper arm and forearm.
Elbows: Elbows are close to the body. The point of the elbows is approximately half the dog’s height at the withers.
Forelegs: Frontal View: Straight, of good muscle, of moderate bone, and parallel to one another.
Side View: The forelimbs appear straight with strong pasterns.
Pasterns: Never weak or broken.
Hindquarters: Upper thigh and lower thigh are equal in length, strong, sturdy, of moderate bone, and well-muscled.
Rear View: When viewed from the rear, the rear pasterns are parallel to one another.
Side View: Good angulation will allow the rear toes to align with the point of the rump or within one to two paw-lengths behind the point of the rump, with the rear pasterns remaining perpendicular to the ground and parallel to one another.
Stifle Joint: Well-angulated, with a good bend to well-let-down rear pasterns.
Angulations: Some individuals will present with moderately angled forequarters and greater angulated hindquarters, which results in the “hackney” gait commonly associated with the Miniature Pinscher breed. The hackney gait is a less efficient gait than that of movement resulting from balanced (similar) angulations of the fore and hindquarters. Balanced angulation of forequarters and hindquarters is always preferred over imbalanced individuals, just as balanced movement is always preferred to the hackney gait.
Feet: Small, oval to round, and compact, with well-arched toes and tough pads.

Coat

Skin: Well-fitted, yet supple. The skin should never obstruct the outline of the dog.
Coat Type: Short, radiant, smooth, straight, and hard. Lies close to the body.
Coat Color or Pattern: CKC recognizes three color varieties of the Miniature Pinscher breed: the standard color, the nonstandard color, and the harlequin variety.
Standard coat color variety: Solid colors of clear red, deer or stag red (clear sable), or black or liver (chocolate) with sharply defined tan points. A small amount of white is permissible, but it should not extend beyond half an inch
in size.
Nonstandard coat color variety: Includes solid colors of chocolate stag, as well as blue, gray, Isabella, lilac, all with tan points (although tan points may appear almost imperceptible on some shades).

Movement

The Miniature Pinscher is well-known for its hackney-like gait. The hackney-like gait is the result of an imbalance between the forequarter and hindquarter angulations, with the forequarters being less angulated than the hindquarters. While impressive and fun to watch, like all imbalanced gaits, it is inefficient, and therefore preference should be given to healthy, efficient-trotting gaits, where the characteristics of healthy structure are evident and without exaggeration or imbalance. The characteristics of healthy structure are evident: when moving away, the forelegs and rear pasterns should remain parallel to one another. When viewing movement from the front, the forelegs should remain parallel, with elbows and paws moving neither in nor out. From the rear, the back pads should be visible when the rear legs are extended. As speed increases, the forelimbs and hindlimbs will converge to the centerline of gravity. From the side, the topline should remain firm and level. Good reach of movement in the front allows the forepaw to extend out in a line with the nose. The width between the forefeet when extended should be approximately equal to the width between the hindfeet when extended, indicating balance, good reach, and good drive. Dogs that exhibit any sign of breathing or locomotive difficulty shall be disqualified from the show ring.

Temperament

The Miniature Pinscher is a wonderful and devoted companion dog. He is intelligent, watchful, eager to learn, lively, and even-tempered. Mature individuals exhibit a great deal of self-composure. The “pinsching” instincts can be quite strong in some individuals, and therefore, supervision around smaller pets and obedience training is necessary. Like Dobermans, they are very people-oriented dogs and can become somewhat of a shadow. Therefore, they enjoy accompanying their people everywhere they go. Any unprovoked aggressive or fearful behavior toward people is incorrect for this breed.

Faults

All dogs should be in proper healthy condition, free from disease or defect. Any departure from this description is considered a fault. Unless altered, all male dogs should have two fully descended testicles.